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They have scarcely ended their prayer when they perceive lying in their path a loaf of both great size and wondrous whiteness. They all marvel at the sight, certainly not unaware that a mass of such weight could not have fallen out of the load of an unknowing bearer. Then they acknow- ledge the gift of heavenly pity, and the bread of divine generosity, and as they were eight in number, they divide it into so many pieces.
This same brother Richard told me something else which I do not think it proper to pass over in silence. He says that our brother Agius, a man well on in years and notable in religion, while he was still living in the world, went on pilgrimage to the church of the blessed archangel Michael, which is built on Monte Gargano, near Sipontum.
He and his brother, a secular man, had one horse between them, on which they took turns to ride to relieve the labour of the journey. But when he saw that their fellow-travellers needed help with carrying their bundles, he told his brother that they should both abstain from riding the beast, and out of charity for their companions make it available to carry their burdens. Later, while they were resting, worn out by the toil of the long road, and restoring their empty stomachs with food, brother Agius dipped a piece of bread in a cup of wine, but putting it down beside him put off eating while he rested.
While they were thus taking their ease, behold, robbers suddenly attacked them, and got away with everything, including the horse. Then, darting nimbly away, he ran swiftly ahead and persuaded his companions that unless they restored the beast to the servant of God as quickly as possible, they would not avoid the imminent peril of divine vengeance. Overcome by heavenly terror, they at once returned to the man of God and with groans sought forgiveness for their presumption, at the same time restoring the beast together with the things they had stolen.
The divine mercy, therefore, is not far with its protection from those whom it considers to be devotedly labouring in its service. The waves towered and the ship foundered, and all his companions perished in the stormy sea. It happened then that some rowers, ploughing over the sea, saw him from afar and charitably drew him to them and restored him with food and looked after him kindly. So it was that he who preserved Paul unhurt day and night in the depths of the sea, sustained this brother too, in the very inundation of the raging storm, lest he be sucked into the watery maw.
And by the command of him by whose virtue the gullet of the voracious beast spewed forth Jonah, the resilient wave spread out below this man not to swallow him up but to preserve him. Go forth, get moving, contend, he will be the guide of your journey who is also author of the reward. He gives effect to good works who moves the affection of the pious heart. Reindel 4 vols, MGH, —93 , n. Jerusalem pilgrimage in the eleventh century a The pilgrimage of Richard of St Vannes, The burden of ruling [the monastery of] Grace Dieu now seemed heavy to this father, who desired to progress and more freely devote himself to divine contemplation, as the world had already died in his heart.
It was well-known that certain people who had gone to Jerusalem had died a happy death there, among them a man from the region of Autun. What the exultation of his contrite and humbled spirit! What the jubilation of his heart, when he saw himself present where Christ was born, where he suffered, where he was buried, where his feet last stood when he ascended into heaven.
Everywhere that he prayed, he soaked the ground with tears, the cry of his heart rose up to the Lord, his body sank down, his spirit rose aloft. He spent the night continually in vigils, he wore down his body with fasts, never without tears, never without prayers; his whole being exulted in the Lord, but he cloaked the gladness of his mind with serenity of countenance … [Hugh of Flavigny, Chron- icon, MGH SS 8, pp.
Then he came to the River Jordan, in which the Saviour of the World washed away the guilt of our sins, and taking off his clothes descended into the water … [Vita Posterior, ibid.
Most earnestly they commended their intention to them, praying that they might be enabled to complete the arduous course of the regular life, by which they longed to attain the celestial fatherland.
Stirred by this terror, not only the common people, but rulers, men distinguished by birth and rank, and the very bishops of various cities, resplendent in glory and honour, left their homeland, kin and riches, and by a narrow path, taking up the cross, followed Christ.
In his company there were many men of reputation, both clergy and laity, from eastern France as well as from Bavaria. For shame! On this journey there was a memorable incident, which I will include by way of example, so that those who obstinately reject the counsels of the wiser may take fright at it.
There was on this expedition a certain noble abbess, fair of form and devout of mind, who had abandoned the care of the sisters entrusted to her and against all the advice of wiser heads had subjected herself to the dangers of this pilgrimage. She was captured by the pagans, and in the sight of everybody, raped by the shameless ones for so long that at last, to the disgrace of all Christians, she breathed her last. Because of his great pomp, they suspected that Gunther was not a bishop, but the king of the Romans disguising himself as a bishop because he would not otherwise be able to go to the Holy Sepulchre.
They displayed the magnitude of their wealth carelessly to the peoples through whose lands their journey lay, and would have suffered disaster if divine mercy had not restored a situation made dangerous by human temerity. Many of the Christians thought it a religious act to help themselves and to defend, with physical weapons, their own well-being which as pilgrims peregre proficiscentes they had devoted to God.
He thought that if they perished as a result of such wretched slaughter, nobody thereafter would cross that territory on pilgrimage causa orationis and he and his people would suffer considerable loss in consequence. They went to the city of Ramleh, and were there detained, against their will, for two weeks by the governor and townspeople. At last allowed to depart, they entered the Holy City on 12th April.
Rius Serra 3 vols, Barcelona —47 , 2, n. I want therefore to go to the shrine of the blessed apostle James … [Ibid. First, I Maienna leave my sheep in alms to San Cugat, so that if I do not return and my son does, he shall have half and the other half [will go] in alms, and if either of us does not return, those alms shall be given; and my own work, in wool or linen, may be sold to make cloths for the church of San Cugat.
Arem- burgis, wife of the aforesaid Hubert, consented. They raised the issue of the evil custom he was perpetrating. He fully acknowledged the injustice, but was unwilling to amend it altogether, as he should have done, and said that he would not abandon this abominable custom unless they gave him 20 soldi; although it was unjust, the monks preferred to do this, as there was no one to do them justice, rather than that their land should be subject to this evil custom for all time, protesting nonetheless at the injustice that was being done them.
Help for pilgrims: She established servants there for that sole purpose, to furnish the necessities of the arrivals and carefully minister to them. To them she also entrusted ships so that they could ferry people across, both going and returning, nor were they ever to demand any charge for their crossing from those whom they had conveyed.
At this time there were no ambushes for travellers around Rome, no injuries done to those entering the city. Stubbs 2 vols, RS 90 , 2, pp. A liturgy for departing pilgrims: From the Missal of Vich, Prayers for those undertaking the journey Oh Lord who brought Abraham your servant out of Ur of the Chaldees and guarded him through all the paths of his pilgrimage, deign to guard with the shield of your protection these your servants66 who are voluntarily going abroad sponte peregrina petentes for the love of your name.
Give them, we ask, oh Lord, your grace, appointing your holy angel to guard them waking and sleeping and direct their path. With the aid of Our Lord. Given that they were dealing with a population located in southern France, it was not unreasonable that the inquisitors should classify the shrines of Becket at Canterbury and the Magi at Cologne as demanding goals for their penitents, along with Compostela and Rome. The minor pilgrimages were all French, with the addition, in the fourteenth century, of the shrine of St Dominic at Bologna, fittingly in view of Dominican prominence in the inquisition .
The Holy Land constituted a category on its own. In the early fourteenth century, the Dominican Bernard Gui enumerated these pilgrimages, and described the procedures of the Inquisition of Toulouse, including form letters for use in a variety of situations.
Financial or other commutation of the penalty was a possibility, but if a convicted heretic died without performing the pilgrimages imposed and without having made such an agreement, his or her heirs and executors were liable to pay compensation [3,c,d]. I, pp.
The male seems to have been imprisoned. II, p. Urban V was similarly motivated when he proposed penitential pilgrimages for repentant members of the military com- panies which were terrorising France . Hamo de Hethe, bishop of Rochester from to , used English shrines, often very local ones, almost exclusively.
The bishop was clearly sometimes acting as lord of the manor rather than, strictly, as spiritual authority. The one overseas pilgrimage required was for the grave sin of adultery with a godmother, which was tantmount to incest. Hamo also registered the sentence imposed by the papal penitentiary on John Laurence clerk of London, for involvement in the murder of Walter de Stapledon, bishop of Exeter.
He was also obliged to do public penance in the churches of Rochester. In Philip IV of France imposed on the rebellious Flemish a treaty of peace which included among its terms his right to send 2, citizens of Bruges on pilgrimages in recompense for the mas- sacre of the French carried out in that city in The courts of the Flemish cities themselves used pilgrimage as a punishment for criminal of- fences, drawing up lists of shrines, each with its price, on payment of which the convicted person might be able to download off the need to make the pilgrimage.
These lists could be very extensive indeed: Though the shrines are listed in no particular order, the sums to be paid in monetary composition seem roughly proportional to the distances that would otherwise have to be traversed. Most of the shrines mentioned occur also on other, longer lists.
The magistrates of Ghent, Aalst and Dendermonde were among the most demanding, on paper at least, in that they were prepared to contemplate sending delinquents to such far-flung spots as Cyprus, Constantinople and the shrine of St Thomas in India. Here, one feels, the line between penitential pilgrimage and exile is very fine indeed.
The crimes for which penitential pilgrimage was imposed varied considerably in seriousness. Whatever these were, they cannot have been too serious, considering the modest distance he had to travel. Alexander III to the archbishop of Uppsala and his suffragans, on the penance to be exacted from those guilty of certain offences: Innocent III to the prior of Oseney: The wife is to be admonished not to cohabit with him and to remain continent during his life.
Hageneder and A. Haidacher, 6, n. Sentences of the Inquisition of Carcassonne a , November 30th Permission was given to Pierre Pelha of Couffoulens to remove the crosses imposed on him for heresy until he returns from France, where he wants to go; and after his return he must within eight days present himself to the lord bishop of Carcassonne and must then willingly resume those crosses, or others, without more ado; and he must show him the testimonial letters of the pilgrimages which he has completed.
And he has sworn to uphold and perform these things and agreed that a public record should be made. No change has been made in the other conditions imposed on him. Archbishop Pecham of Canterbury disciplines a fornicating clerk: Nevertheless he had afterwards sinned again like a dog returning to its vomit.
Wherefore, submitting himself entirely to our will and direction, he has promised and given his oath on the holy gospels of God, to obey our will and ordinance in this matter and to carry out the punishment and penance inflicted on him by us for these sins. The following year, he is to visit the shrines of the blessed apostles Peter and Paul and perform the customary pilgrim stations at Rome Romae peregrinetur in stationibus consuetis.
In the third year following he shall do pilgrimage to Cologne for the re- mission of his sins. We ordain further that for the said three years, Ralph rector of the church of Barewe, in whose fidelity and diligence we repose trust, shall have custody of the church of Hamme, and by these presents consign the said church to his custody for that period, on the clear understanding that he will each year bestow on the aforesaid rector, for the necessities of life, shillings sterling from the goods and rents of the church.
The said Ralph shall receive another shillings as his stipend. Douais Paris— Toulouse , pp. The Count of Flanders comes to terms with the French a , September 1st And the said messieur de Poitiers said that the said count Robert of Flanders shall go to the Holy Land with him, or with whoever shall be king of France, when a general passage takes place, if he is in a condition in which he can go; and messieur Robert, his son, shall within a year go on pilgrimage to St James of Galicia, to Our Lady of Rocamadour, to Notre Dame of Vauvert, to St Gilles in Provence and to our Lady of Le Puy.
And if he cannot do all this within one year, he shall do it within two … [Rupin, p. And we granted the said lord Robert, pilgrim of the Blessed Virgin, the indulgences written herein. In witness of which fact the seal which we use for such purposes is appended. And we notify by this present letter all whom it concerns or may concern. Given at Rocamadour on the aforesaid Friday, in the year of our Lord When this was settled she married the other Renier, and they have contravened the laws, being kin in the third degree.
Dis- pensation is conceded on condition that Renier go within two years to St James, and they can then contract matrimony anew. In the meantime they are to separate. Urban V recommends to the archbishop of Bordeaux that pilgrimages be imposed on members of the military companies who desire absolution from excommunica- tion: The weak and those permanently incapable of sailing should be instructed to go within six months to Rome and to stay there for a year, and every week of that year to visit the shrines of the blessed apostles Peter and Paul and the other places in the City which penitents are ac- customed to visit, and then they should visit the shrine of St James in Compostela … [Urban V, Communes, n.
The dean, treasurer and chapter of St Martin of Tours certify performance of pilgrimage: A delinquent painter of Tournai, Henri le Mieri, painter, according to information received and other- wise, has always been accustomed to abuse and quarrel with others, and even to utter seditious and slanderous words, trying to creatre trouble and discord, and among other things has untruthfully and without cause maliciously accused the officers, elected and otherwise, of the commune of having been the cause of punishments and executions which have been inflicted on several people, in fact for their demerits, asking whether more officers were wanted to cut off heads as they had done, and stirring up the indignation of the people of the town against them, and other words tending to discord, dis- turbing and impeding the goods of peace and justice.
And he will not be able to come back to the town unless with the agreement and consent of the whole people and community, assembled by colleges and banners for the purpose, and he will pay a fine of twice ten pounds, and make a journey to Our Lady of Rocamadour.
By this means, shrines and relics were given a more exactly quantitative salvific value than they had previously had.
It did not escape notice that the practice was open to over-use if not outright abuse, and in the Fourth Lateran Council legislated both to subject the verifi- cation of relics to the authority of the Roman Church and to restrict the amount of indulgence that bishops could grant to forty days .
There is no certain evidence that a plenary indulgence was avail- able to pilgrims anywhere before It is highly unlikely that the indulgence available on 1st August at the church of Santa Maria degli Angeli just outside Assisi, which enclosed the little church of the Portiuncula where Francis had died, was plenary at this date, but it was, or was believed to be, generous enough to be attracting pilgrims before the end of the thirteenth century.
In Nicholas IV issued a confirmation of all the indulgences which he claimed that his predecessors, according to traditions written and unwritten, had granted to the basilica of St Peter.
The forty-day indulgence, which early in the century the Lateran Council had nominated as the normal maximum, was now available on every day in the year which was not otherwise provided for. To earn it, the non- Roman had to spend fifteen days performing the prescribed visits, and the inhabitant of Rome thirty days. The circumstances were now very different from those of Indeed, the circumstances of the fourteenth-century popes were in many respects abnormal.
They were absent from Rome from to , and then the Great Schism began. Clement gave abundant notice of what was going to happen in This gave time for other interested parties to make their dispositions, 5 and also for excited and misleading rumours to spread about the conditions of the indulgence.
Some of its emendations clearly served the interests of the other greater Roman churches which had for centuries been on the pilgrim itinerary. Foreigners also had to perform this enlarged circuit, but they had to stay for only fifteen days.
When the faithful had completed their visits, the sudarium of Jesus Christ would be shown to them and at the sight of it the plenary indulgence would take effect, returning the pilgrim to the state he was in on the day of his baptism. The exhibition of the Veronica, which had been growing in celebrity in the course of the thirteenth century, had, however, been a feature of the Jubilee, and in Clement issued a string of instructions to his officials at Rome to permit private views of the relic to dis- tinguished visitors.
The real Clement went so far as to concede, in Unigenitus, that the confessed and penitent pilgrim who set out on his journey but was unavoidably prevented from reaching Rome, or, having arrived there, died before he could complete the prescribed visits, would still receive the indulgence; but in a letter of March to Philip VI of France [6,c] he insisted that it could not be granted, as the king and others had requested, to the old, the sick, or to persons such as enclosed nuns who for other reasons could not personally make the journey.
Secular clergy could free themselves to come by placing a substitute in their benefices for the duration of a year, without any need for episcopal permission. The monk, black or white, received a special concession: Clement did in fact issue a number of mandates, during and after , directing abbots to re-admit monks who had attended the Jubilee without licence: Even the forger, however, stopped short of according a like licence to nuns, contenting himself with providing that if they could not obtain permission from their superiors to make the pilgrimage, they should say the psalter every week instead.
These false bulls were widely influential, not least in England. The versified English guide-book called The Stacions of Rome repeatedly stressed the antiquity of the indulgences available there.
The pope in response declared the conditions on which monastic personnel, from abbots down to servants, farmers and tenants, could receive the indulgence without stirring from home. On 8th January the queen of Hungary was awarded all the benefits of the indulgence as if she had personally been to Rome, and on 14th May Edward III of England, his wife, his mother, Edward prince of Wales, and Henry earl of Lancaster received the same privilege.
On 6th September the pope awarded the indulgence to the inhabitants of the island of Majorca on condition of a payment of 30, florins, which the bishop was to collect. The belief that pilgrimage or other pious exercises could be performed vicariously, and the merit due to it acquired thereby, under- pinned the practice of late medieval testators who left money for this purpose.
By a variety of means a wedge was inserted between the physical performance of the pilgrimage vow and the acquisition of its spiritual benefits. The popes had now set their feet on a road which seemed to lead in two quite different directions. On the one hand, they had many reasons, even when themselves resident at Avignon, to promote pilgrimage to Rome.
The circumstances of the Great Schism increased the pressure in both directions. Urban VI, his position threatened by an anti-pope, decided in one of his last acts that Jubilees should be held every thirty-three years in honour of the age of Christ, and announced one for , which he did not himself live to see.
This was a replica of the Roman Jubilee indulgence the terms of which Boniface recapitulated , solicited by the urban magistrates, on behalf, not just of the cathedral, but of the numerous churches in the city which possessed celebrated relics.
Boniface conceded the indulgence, and the offerings made by actual pilgrims, to those churches, but the offerings made in order to obtain the indulgence by those who were unable or unwilling to come in person were divided between the rebuilding of the abbey church of St Heribert, in Deutz just across the Rhine from Cologne, and the repair of the churches of Rome.
The involvement of the urban magistrates, in soliciting and in administering the indulgence, is conspicuous; their representations were rewarded with further grants of indulgence in September of the same year.
A Parisian diarist in sagely commented that the indul- gence that had just been made available at Notre Dame de Pontoise which had been badly damaged in the wars with the English was the same as the one to be had at Rome, but did not take as long to get.
More circumspect fifty years on, the Canterbury authorities successfully obtained such an indulgence from Paul II. The rebuilding of Rome was an expensive preoccupation, and the advance of the Ottoman Turks in the eastern Mediterranean gave additional point to the established practice of marketing the Jubilee indulgence after the event.
In November Nicholas V made the current Jubilee indulgence available to James of Scots and his whole kingdom, on conditions which included the transmission of one-third of the oblations received to Rome for the repair of the basilicas, while in he was advertising its continued availability in order to raise money for the support of the overstretched order of St John of Jerusalem.
In May the Pope appointed John abbot of Abingdon papal nuncio to Edward IV and collector of the monies from those who had not been able to go in person to Rome for the Jubilee, the proceeds to go to the war against the Turk; the offer was renewed in Minor indulgences, which it was in the power of bishops to grant, continued to be obtainable at churches all over Christendom, as they had been since the twelfth century.
These too were frequently available not only to to those who went in person to the church, but to those who sent money for its restoration. What impact did this apparent inflationary spiral have on the physical performance of pilgrimage? Did the volume of, say, Holy Land pilgrimage at its height surely only undertaken by relatively few decline from what it might have been because it was perfectly possible to obtain comparable indulgences elsewhere?
When, however, his party penetrates to the monastery of St Catherine at Sinai, and stands before the tomb of St Catherine, he strikes a different note: She was, undoubtedly, aware of indulgences and believed in their efficacy. There can be no doubt that what may be termed the culture, even the commodification, of the indulgence was influential.
There are widespread testimonies to the belief that the benefits of pilgrimage could be shared, as it were by prior agreement, by persons who were not themselves going but had contributed to support the journey. Now the dissemination of itemised lists of the indulgences available at Rome and elsewhere gave the pilgrim and his stay-at-home well-wishers a more precise notion of what it was they had to share. One prospective member of the party with which Leonardo Frescobaldi a member of one of the most prominent Florentine banking families went to the Holy Land in was prevented by family and political cares from going: In , the ill-fated Simon Sudbury, bishop of London, allegedly told a party of pilgrims on the road to Canterbury for the Jubilee indulgence that they would derive no benefit from it.
His indignant hearers accused him of impugning the merits of St Thomas himself, and their prophecies that Simon would meet an evil end were fulfilled when as archbishop of Canterbury he was murdered by the rebels of If he was really questioning the intrinsic value of the indulgence, he was impugning papal authority, not the merits of St Thomas, who theologically speaking had nothing to do with the case.
It is perhaps more likely if in fact he said what is attributed to him that Simon was sceptical of the penitence and contrition of the pilgrims, which alone could validate the indulgence. It was not, perhaps, a point on which pilgrims or the custodians of shrines always insisted too scrupulously. Leonardo Frescobaldi, however, seems to have been aware, at least in theory, that indulgences might or might not be effective.
The mere influx of large numbers of pilgrims, who required hospitality and many of whom might be too poor to make really substantial offerings in return, did not necessarily guarantee a profit to the shrine. A greater proportional profit may well have gone to the lay population of a city which housed a celebrated shrine.
As for the pilgrims themselves, people continued to need help in the trials of life; and the journey doubtless retained its lure for many. The late medieval Christian could have been forgiven for thinking that he needed all the indulgences he could get, but as a human being he remained subject to a variety of impulses that could lead to pilgrimage. We also grant that anyone who, for any reason, cannot be present there on that day and who shall come within the octave of that dedication, shall receive this remission, on the part of almighty God and blessed Peter and Paul His apostles.
The Fourth Lateran Council, From c. We also direct that letters of indulgence granted for any cause whatsoever shall observe this number of days, since the Roman pontiff, who holds the plenitude of power, has been accus- tomed to observe this norm in such matters.
Since therefore in the church of Cologne especially the relics of saints repose in reverent safekeeping, we ask, advise and exhort you in the Lord, enjoining it upon you for the remission of your sins, that you come to the aforesaid church with devotion and reverence and in purity of heart.
We, desiring that this church should be frequented with due honour, grant forty days of enjoined penance every year, out of the mercy of Almighty God and by the authority of the blessed Peter and Paul, His apostles, to all those who are truly penitent and confessed and who visit that church annually on the day of its consecration.
Desiring therefore that your church, in which the bodies of the Three Magi, resplendent with many miracles, are conserved under reverent guard, should be frequented with due honour, we mercifully concede forty days of enjoined penance each year to all, truly penitent and confessed, who reverently visit that church on the annual feast-day of those saints, out of the mercy of Almighty God and by the authority of the blessed Peter and Paul, His apostles. On every [re- maining] day of the year, one year and forty days.
Langlois 2 vols, Paris , 2, p. We there- fore, who in pursuance of the duties of our office, seek and willingly provide for the salvation of all, ratify, confirm and approve all of these by apostolic authority, and also add to them and by means of the present writing make this known.
Everyone however, who frequents the basilicas more often and more devoutly will merit more and obtain the indulgence more effectively. Digard 4 vols, Paris —39 , 2, n. The Jubilee of a , January 27th: Clement VI proclaims the indulgence: Each and every indulgence granted by us and our predecessors as Roman pontiffs, both to the basilicas and churches aforementioned and to others in the said city, we con- firm and approve and renew, by apostolic authority and make known by the force of the present writing.
Whereupon the pope summoned together the cardinals and the clergy, and considering the condition of human beings of great age, that because of the decrepitude of age they cannot survive for the full indulgence of sins once established in the city of Rome by pope Boniface VIII at hundred-year intervals, wherefore many remain frus- trated of their desire for the aforesaid indulgence, he changed the indulgence, established at every hundred years, to every fifty years.
So he made available to all Christians who came to the holy city of Rome in that fiftieth Jubilee year indulgence and remission of sins. And he granted that whoever resolved to set out on pilgrimage to that holy city, on the day that he set out from his home, should be able to choose a confessor on the way who should have full power of absolution of all papal causes; and if, being truly confessed, he was overtaken by death on the way, he would be free of all his sins and completely absolved.
The said Pope also directed the angels of Para- dise to take his soul, totally absolved in purgatory, immediately to the joys of Paradise. The sudarium of our lord Jesus Christ would be shown to those arriving at the said holy city, and having seen this they would be absolved of their sins, and would have indulgence of them, restoring them to the state they were in on the day on which they received holy baptism.
He also confirmed all the indulgences granted by supreme pontiffs, which are innumerable. Wherefore, from every part of the world, countless people of both sexes flocked to Rome, because of these indulgences, in that fiftieth year of Jubilee. The other offerings which these people make in visiting the churches of the city of Cologne shall be spent on the purposes of those churches by their rectors, faithfully and in their entirety, on the conscience of the collectors and sub-collectors of the magistrates, consuls and rectors.
Lincoln [Kirby Bellars, Leics. The prior and six or more priests may hear confessions and grant absolution, except in reserved cases, and commute vows of pilgrimage and abstinence. Penitents who are detained by infirmity or otherwise lawfully hindered, and who send their alms, may gain the indulgence as if they had made their visits in person.
Dunstan 3 vols, CYS 60—66 1, p. Some were the hazards of all travel, generated by nature and man: In so far as pilgrimage arguably created crowds where they might not otherwise have been, and increased the numbers of people traversing certain routes at certain times, it had the potential to aggravate these basic problems, not least because it attracted malefactors.
Robbers knew that at certain times there would be large numbers of people, possibly unarmed, on the road to Rome; swindlers and mountebanks of all kinds knew that at any popular shrine there was a promising market of possibly credulous people, eager to have their money changed, desperately in need of accommodation at almost any price, willing to download the shoddiest goods.
This was not, of course, en- tirely new. Preparations would be both secular and spiritual, from raising the money for the trip, making a will and appointing attorneys, to participating in the valedictory rites provided by the local church. Others were special; for example, at St Gilles he theoretically enjoyed a remarkable freedom to withdraw from a contract to download or sell, and was also specially protected in matters of money-changing [A7].
Illness, injury or other problems real or alleged could prevent an intending pilgrim from ever setting off, and this might mean seeking a dispensation from vows, or even from a sentence of penitential pilgrimage. This is unlikely, however, to have been the whole truth.
Explanations of a different order are perhaps needed for the backsliding of many ecclesiastical dignitaries who also had to be absolved from pilgrimage vows that they later perceived to be inconvenient. Papal dispensations and absolutions thus amplify our picture of pilgrimage, and pilgrimage vows, as elements in a total religious culture.
The Lautrec party above-mentioned had to give the cost of their abandoned pilgrimage to the fabric of the church of Lautrec. These procedures closely resembled those used when Jubilee indulgences were granted to persons who had not in fact made the journey to Rome.
Occasionally he solicited alms and good will on behalf of particular pilgrims [A27]. He might dispense male religious to make pilgrimages with or without the consent of their superiors, or intervene to obtain access for women pilgrims to shrines from which they would otherwise have been debarred.
A not uncommon feature of the papal registers in the fourteenth century was the issue of permissions to pilgrims to visit the Holy Sepulchre. These provisions were echoed by Gregory X at Lyons in , where the moratorium on shipping was extended to six years. A few days before, he had conferred a variety of powers on Walter bishop of Worcester, who was to preside over the preaching of the Cross in England. In about Leopold von Suchem wrote: For this reason, when any traveller receives his license to go there from the Apostolic Father, in addition to the leave which is granted him, there is a clause in the bull to the effect that he shall not download or sell anything in the world, save only victuals and clothes and bodily necessaries, and if he contravenes this he is to know that he has fallen back again under sentence of excom- munication.
Both Alfonso X of Castile17 and the commune of Siena [A13] legislated to safeguard the testamentary rights of pilgrims. Hospital foundations, which dealt with a transient population of sick as well as pilgrims, often possessed their own burial facilities.
Vested interests might obstruct the provision of more effective services. The holy man Allucius of Pescia d. A Becket miracle story tells how a man called Fretus built a xenodochium on the eastern side of a hill seven miles from London, where robbers were wont to prey upon travellers, but he needed miraculous assistance to locate the necessary water-supply.
It was easier to meet a short- term demand for lodgings and basic foodstuffs than to achieve permanent improvements in the state of roads and bridges. One of them, which should have been staffed by three lay-brothers, had one, who had been there for about forty years.
In and the commune handed out doles of grain to poor pilgrims to Compostela; in both years, hospitals were being built to cater for pilgrims among others. Some achieved con- siderable fame, holding property and raising funds on an international scale. The order of Altopascio possessed property all along the roads to Compostela. The king of England took such orders and their property under his protection, and also, from time to time, issued edicts against bogus alms-gatherers who were collecting in their name.
Twenty such people met on 18th September and appointed a proctor to oversee the creation of a hospital. In the previous July, a testator had left his own house for this purpose: The hospital oratory, splendidly frescoed later in the century with stories of both saints, still exists. Subsequently feeling the need to make separate provision for women, he set up another establishment nearby, staffed by chaste matrons, which was more luxurious but also more secluded: It was consistent with this tendency that when hospital provision was made for pilgrims, it might be hedged by conditions.
The revised statutes of the Eastbridge Hospital at Canterbury in provided that priority was to be given to the poor sick pilgrim over the healthy one, who was accommodated for one night only [A18]. The dangers of seafaring were unalterable, and the saints were kept busy rescuing their devotees, on the way to and from the Holy Places, as well as on other sea journeys. He also wrote to the Roman nobles urging that they take action against highwaymen, but to judge from the experience of two Sienese pil- grims in the highwaymen were often working for the nobles [A17].
One would-be pilgrim to Rocamadour, a mariner of Bordeaux, was deterred from going because of the presence of the English and of brigands along the way: There were both violent and non-violent means of getting it. The town council of Hildesheim was much concerned with the welfare of pilgrims who passed through the city on their way to Aachen; in and again in they issued proclamations against the over-pricing of provisions, lodging and money itself, stipulating, in , a rate of exchange for the Hungarian penny.
Intervention on the part of higher authority to prevent the exaction of tolls from pilgrims remained necessary [A11]. The Jubilee took almost everyone by surprise, from the pope downwards, and hospitality for pilgrims had, to a large extent, to be improvised. Innkeepers had to obtain licences to sell food retail.
New food-shops and hotels sprang up; in the commune of Abbadia San Salvatore authorised the con- struction of an albergo on the Via Francigena which was to be exempt from the payment of gabella, except in Jubilee years. In , because of the failure of supplies, it proved necessary to curtail the length of stay the pilgrim was supposed to make in Rome in order to obtain the Jubilee indulgence, but in , according to one chronicler, the visitors wanted for nothing [B1,d]. A grain shortage during the winter of —90 caused the Perugian authorities to forbid anyone to give bread to pilgrims, and indeed to close the gates against them.
In , however, they were endeavouring to ensure that pilgrims on their way to Rome from the direction of Gubbio proceeded by way of Perugia: It is a miscellany, which aims merely to give a picture of the problems faced by pilgrims and of the efforts made to ease their path and provide protection and support.
It includes some extracts from two personal accounts of the pilgrimage experience, by the Florentine Leonardo Frescobaldi, a pilgrim to the Holy Land in [A21], and Margery Kempe of Lynn, a pilgrim everywhere that she could manage [A23].
Privilege and Assistance for Pilgrims 1. The First Lateran Council, c. Raimondo Palmario and his mother set out for Jerusalem, c. May the most merciful Saviour guide you and bring you safely back. When you pray, be mindful of your homeland.
And the grant is on these conditions, that the chaplain shall be presented to us, and that he shall profess obedience, and he shall receive the cure of souls of pilgrims only, and shall be replaced by us, or our suc- cessors or vicars. You shall not receive there our parishioners alive or dead for burial. Alexander III to the clergy, judges and whole people of Benevento: That is to say, that merchants, travellers and pil- grims, who are lodged with someone in the city, if it happens that they become ill, are not permitted to leave the house, to make a will [disposing] of their goods, or to choose their place of burial if they should die, although the laws and the canons direct that the last will of the dying as to their burial and the disposition of their property is to be upheld.
In fact, their goods are dispersed, part to our court, part to the church, and part to their hosts. Wherefore several people suspect that it sometimes happens that the sick are so badly treated by their hosts that, as a result of their cupidity, their death is hastened by their wishes and actions. We by the common consent and assent of our brethren condemn this custom, which rests not on any law but on simple cupidity and long usage, with a prohibition of permanent validity, and decree that it is without any effect, placing both burial and the disposition of goods in the free will of the departing, and removing from our court as from the city as a whole all taint of such immense avarice.
The aforesaid persons in the city of Benevento shall henceforth have the right of leaving their lodgings and returning as they wish, and of changing their place, and choosing their burial, and willing their goods …. Trouble on the road from Santiago, It happened after a few days that two knights of the household of the king of England, whose names were Robert Poore and Ralph Fraser, crossed the land of the Count of St Gilles, returning from St James, which they had visited on pilgrimage, going via Toulouse; scouts of the count laid hands on them and arrested them and brought them bound to him and he imprisoned them.
Count Richard, hearing that they had been captured on pil- grimage, returning from St James, told him that they would not be released by his agency, whether by his request or his money. When they could get no other reply from him, they went to the king of France, who had come to that region to make peace between Count Richard and the Count of St Gilles, and told him all that had occurred, how they had been captured and held on their pilgrimage. On hearing this, the king of France commanded the aforesaid Count of St Gilles to let the pilgrims go, not for the love of the king of England, or of his son Count Richard, but out of reverence and love for the blessed apostle James.
Gualtiero of Lodi: Twelfth—thirteenth centuries: Legal privileges and protection of pilgrims at St Gilles a , October: And if they see that anyone is deceiving them, they are to denounce the offenders to the court or the consulate. It is also decreed that the changers may carry out no exchange for pilgrims in inns, or in houses or shops. It is, however, conceded that they can lawfully carry out exchange for pilgrims in the house of the Hospitallers, of the Knights of the Temple or in the cloister of St Gilles; and if in weighing or counting they unknowingly make a mistake of one penny in a quarter-mark in denario uno de firtone eos … fefellerint , they shall not be held to account for it ….
Also, the innkeepers of the town of St Gilles have sworn that they will not lead pilgrims into any houses, workshops or shops to change money, and that they will not change money for them, and that they will not permit them to be defrauded in exchange, and that they will uphold the exchanges of the town of St Gilles as lawful.
If they slander them, or, by reason of any ill intention, deter pilgrims from them, they will incur the full penalty, in person and money, according to the present regulations. Teulet 5 vols, Paris — , 1, p. With all such persons, because their patrimonies are situated far away, compensa- tion is impossible.
Bligny-Bondurand Paris , pp. The same applies to things sold by them, if they change their minds. But the downloaders who have contracted with them, even if they change their minds, cannot withdraw from the agreement. This privilege pilgrims can exercise while they are in the town and for two days after they have left it.
There are several ways of essoining: For pilgrimage overseas [i. Coutumiers de Normandie: Textes Critiques, ed. It is also to be observed that if someone dies overseas, at Jerusalem, or in Galicia, or in other pilgrimages or on business outside Normandy or in it, within a year and a day after his death is made publicly known at his place of residence, even if he died a long time previously, the heir shall have recognition of the seisin which he had on the day and at the hour when he left his home or country, and for as long as he is not of age he can have this recognition.
Gregory IX to the archbishop of Rouen: Their monastery is built on a high cliff and is no small distance from land, and entirely surrounded by sea, which, its surface rough and the spirit of the tempest swelling, day and night with a double tidal motion advances to the place where the monastery is built and retreats to its accustomed station.
When it happens that there is legal dispute between the monks and our venerable brother the bishop of Avranches on pecuniary or other matters, and they, summoned by his authority to appear in court, are not infrequently prevented, by the stormy sea or other canonical impediment, he does not consider that it is not in their power, constrained as they are by necessity, to appear in his presence whenever they wish, unless, when the time comes for the hearing, the Lord commands the sea and winds and favourable weather allows them a secure passage.
It is not contempt of his mandate which forbids them to obey, but, although he could coerce them by means of the churches and other property which they are known to possess on the landward side, he passes sentence of excommunication or suspension on them for contumacy and as executor of his own judgement places the monastery under interdict.
Auvray 4 vols in 3, Paris — , 1, n. Innocent IV to the abbot of St Gilles: Wherefore you have humbly requested that we come mercifully to your aid in this matter. Bowing to your supplicatons, therefore, we hereby concede to you the entire faculty of having the church reconciled with holy water by any bishop you prefer, and as often as it shall for this reason seem to you necessary, without prejudice to the constitution which prescribes that this is to be done by [several] bishops.
Innocent IV to the queen of France: However, the prelates of the kingdom of Denmark have passed to us a grave complaint, that certain tax- gatherers in certain places of your kingdom compel the messengers of the prelates themselves, travelling to the Apostolic See, and clerks of the kingdom of Denmark going to the schools, and the messengers of those clerks, and pilgrims passing through those regions to pay taxes and tolls on their horses and the things they are carrying with them, like merchants, although they are not merchants at all, and although they are prepared to swear that they are not bringing horses and goods in order to trade; wherefore the aforesaid prelates have humbly asked us to provide a remedy with paternal care.
John cardinal priest of San Lorenzo in Lucina to the abbot and convent of Pontigny: It shall be lawful, however, for them to enter the chapter room of the said monastery for the sake of asking the suffrages of your prayers. Statutes of Siena, —11 Dist. II, r. Item, we decree that if any merchant, romeo, pilgrim or other legitimate traveller dies in the house of any innkeeper or indeed any other person, in the city or contado of Siena, and that person has made disposition of his goods and the things he has with him, of which disposition there is a public document, or it is attested by three male and law-worthy witnesses, that disposition must be ob- served.
And if he has made a will, as has been said, the said will must in similar manner be delivered to the master of the Misericordia and the chamberlain of the consuls of the Mercanzia, so that it can be executed.
Lisini 2 vols, Siena , 1, p. To the bishop of Paris Jean le Mire, layman, when Joanne de Pacy, his wife, a woman of Paris, was labouring gravely in childbirth, so that men despaired of her life, vowed that if God delivered her happily from childbirth, he would go together with her to the shrine of the blessed apostles James, and she agreed to this vow.
Holy Land pilgrimage a , February 8th Otto de Cauqualis, priest and professor of laws, living in the diocese of Narbonne, was born in the Holy Land of Jerusalem and brought up for some time in Cyprus; he came to the regions this side of the sea cismarinas and has lived here for several years. To Guillaume bishop of Mende At the request of Louis duke of Bourbon the pope has conceded to him that he and his household may set out for the Holy Land, and that at the point of death his confessor may give him plenary absolu- tion of his sins, and that he and his household may receive the indulgences which are normally granted to pilgrims to that land.
Vidal 3 vols, Paris —11 , 2, p. From the Statutes of Arezzo, Lib. III, r. That reprisals are not to be taken from those who come to shrines. It is decreed that those who are visiting the shrines of any saints reposing in the city of Arezzo or its district, or at Rome, St James or the Holy Angel [i.
St Michael on Monte Gargano, Puglia], and also ambassadors, shall have free passage through the city and district of Arezzo, nor can anyone seize them while they are passing, nor anyone coming to perform military service or to the funeral of anyone dying in the city or district of Arezzo, or coming to the festival of San Donato, or to the fairs …. Camerani Florence , III. Petition before the Consiglio Generale of Siena: And that by the present authority of this decree we may have and be understood to have [the right of] reprisals ….
If they should die they may be buried in the cemetery of our church of Canterbury, in the place of old allotted for the purpose. Healthy pilgrims arriving there may be received for one night only. However we wish poor and sick pilgrims, arriving with the healthy, whether to stay or to receive subsistence at the above rate, to be given priority over the healthy. This woman is to be provided from the goods of the hospital with an adequate subsistence for all her needs ….
Dispensations issued by Pope Urban V a , April 17th: To his Vicar at Rome We have been informed that although the holy Veronica and many other relics of the saints whose bodies repose in the City are shown to the Romans and to pilgrims to Rome Romipedis at Easter and at other times, nevertheless the most venerable image of our Saviour, which is kept in our chapel at the Lateran which is called the Sancta Sanctorum, begins to be exhibited on the day of the Resurrection of our Lord, the day when the pilgrims customarily leave Rome; and wanting to see that image, they lament that they are deprived of the sight of it; wherefore, wanting to satisfy their pious desires, we command your fraternity to show the said image every year, begin- ning on Palm Sunday and throughout Holy Week at the times at which, after the day of the Resurrection, it has been customary to show it, and thenceforward until the usual day of closure of [the exhibition of] the blessed image.
Wherefore we have been earnestly petitioned, on behalf of the said religious, that with due regard for the aforesaid lord king Charles, we will deign to command that the portal be constructed there where that great king envisaged it ….
Leonardo Frescobaldi embarks for the Holy Land, … We found at Venice many French pilgrims and some Venetians, among whom was Messer Remigi Soranzi, who one evening gave a dinner party for all those who were going to the [Holy] Sepulchre, of whom there was a large number, and they made him their chief. All these Venetian and foreign pilgrims wanted to go to the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, without going to St Catherine [Sinai] or to Egypt, except for us three, who were travelling together with a servant and also a bursar spenditore.
All the others wanted to sail in galleys and make port every evening. We decided to disembark in Alexandria and then begin our quest in Egypt; we were hiring a new cog of twelve botti,48 paying seventeen ducats a head. When the [other] Florentine pilgrims saw that we were making a bigger tour of the Holy Land and beginning at Alexandria, they gained courage, came to an agreement with us and decided to do what we were doing.
Then I fell ill, and as the time for departing approached, the doctors refused to allow me to embark.
So Giorgio [Gucci] and Andrea assembled certain Florentine merchants and several Venetians who were friends of the Florentines and after discussion with the doctors decided that this time they would go no further, but that we would return to Florence. And they came all together to the house of the Florentine Filippo di Jacopo Filippo, where I had gone to get better nursing because there were his mother and wife there, and there were no women in the Portinari household.
So we are all agreed in advising you not to embark and not to tempt God. The doctors who were caring for me were present at all these discussions, and so was the master of the new cog on which we were going to Alexandria, whose name was messer Lorenzo Morosini, and the name of the cog was Pola.
The doctors made arrangements for my regimen and food and medicine and everything a sick man needs, telling me to make my bed as if I was in my room in Florence.
The priest from the Casentino who was with us had also fallen ill in Venice; seeing me embark, he resolved to do likewise. That morning, they brought the cog three miles off Venice, and there they anchored and loaded her with a cargo mostly of Lombard cloth, silver ingots, copper, oil and saffron. In the evening, at the hour of vespers, we embarked on a sixteen-oared brigantine with our many Florentine and Venetian friends and went out to the cog; and making the sign of the Holy Cross we and our company went abroad; and when we had had a drink with our friends they disembarked from the ship and returned to Venice.
So, between merchants and pilgrims and soldiers and crew, it seemed a gallant company. So, sailing with gentle winds through the Gulf of Venice close to Lussino, we had good fortune.
Because the ship was new and large it seemed to make light of the sea. English guilds a Toulmin Smith, English Gilds: And if any brother or sister be in pel- grimage, he schale have a galoun of ale to his drinke. But if any brother or sister of the gild wishes, at any time, to make a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, then, in order that all the gilde may share in his pilgrimage, he shall be fully released from his yearly payment until his return.
And there is a Governor of this house, and a woman to wash their feet, and whatever else is needed. And similarly every brother promised a measure of barley to the fabric of the aforesaid church, which act of devotion it has pleased them to uphold for a long time, so that all the brothers and sisters, once a year, eat together and there elect an alderman to govern on their behalf as aforesaid and this is the form of the aforesaid guild and it was ordained for this devotion.
Owen, Lincoln Record Society 85 , n. Margery Kempe a She prepares to go to Jerusalem When the time came that this creature should visit the holy places where our Lord was quick and dead, as she had by revelation before, she prayed the parish priest of the town where she was dwelling to say for her in the pulpit that, if any man or woman claimed any debt of her husband or of her [they] should come and speak with her before she went, and, with the help of God, she would make satis- faction to each of them, and so she did.
And what you bid me give to any poor man or woman, I will do your bidding, always a penny for you and another for myself.
And then the said Thomas Marchale went and paid the master for himself and for the said creature. Why do you this with me, more than you have done with other pilgrims that are here, which have no letter any more than I have? Then she went to one of them asking whether they were purposed to go.
When they were outside towns, her fellowship took of their clothes and, sitting naked picked themselves [i. Need compelled her to stay with them and prolong her journey and be put to much more expense than she would have been otherwise …. When they were come to Aachen, the said creature met with a monk of England, who was on his way to Rome.
Then was she much comforted inasmuch as she had a man she could understand. And in the meantime it chanced that a worshipful woman came from London, a widow with many people with her, to see and worship the holy relics. The worthy woman granted her all her desire, and had her eat and drink with her and made her right good cheer.
The said creature, hoping to have gone with her, and defrauded of her purpose, was in great despondency. She took her leave of the monk who was going to Rome, and got herself a wagon with other pilgrims and pursued the aforesaid woman as fast as she might to see if she could overtake her, but it was not to be.
Then it happened that she met with two men of London going to London. They said, if she could stand going as fast as they, she should be welcome, but they could not tolerate much delay; nevertheless they would help her forward in her journey with a good will.
So she followed after them with great labour, till they came to a good town where they met pilgrims of England who were coming from the court of Rome and were going home again to England. She prayed them that she might go with them, and they said shortly that they would not delay their journey for her, for they had been robbed and had but little money to bring them home, wherefore they must needs make a sharper journey.
And therefore if she could bear to go as fast as they, she should be welcome and otherwise not. I've had a magical time. Your great photos and ideas for things to see near the path were lovely, e. And great advice to walk out of Porto rather than take the Metro to Matosinhos - thanks. There were many families enjoying the lovely day Saturday and it was a pleasure to experience.
They are obviously increasing the Ecovia boardwalk even since you wrote this. I did take the decision not to do beach walking as you did apart from the odd moments because I didn't know if it would work with tides. Thank you again! Please be advised that this is a digital product only. You will not receive any type of print or hard copy of anything!
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